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Sparse coding in real-time

The spike based visual saliency project takes spike events from the Silicon Retina and ports them into the Neural Emulation Framework (NEF) in order to identify the visually salient portions of the video seen by the retina. Sparse coding and saliency computations are achieved in NEF with several layers of spiking neurons with strong lateral inhibitions. Five network files are included in this project. This is related to the spatiotemporal processing project also in this model archive
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=== Small sparse coding network ===
The first,, is a simple demonstration of the sparse coding principle. 8x8 image clips are randomly selected from an image library and input to the network. This image is then projected onto a population of 128 columns of 100 spiking neurons, each representing a gabor-like receptive field. Lateral inhibition between the columns produces a sparse representation. The neural responses are then projected back into the input space to illustrate the fidelity of the neural representation.

[[Image(rfs.jpg, 400)]]
Receptive Fields used by populations

The network is connected as follows: given the basis PHI for neural coding, the connections from the input to the neurons are PHI'. The lateral connections are -(PHI'PHI-I). Finally, the output of each neural column passes through a nonlinear function, the soft-threshold, which reduces noise and enforces sparsity. The resulting differential equation is:
TAU du/dt + u = PHI'y - (PHI'PHI - I) a
a = ST(u)
where is the input image, and is the output of the neural columns.
This is the Locally Competitive Algorithm (LCA), see Rozell et al. 2008.
This is guaranteed to converge to an optimally sparse representation.

=== Large sparse coding network === is similar to LCA2, but accepts 24x24 image clips, and projects them onto a layer of 1024 columns of 30 neurons each. The higher resolution allows for features to be discernable to the human eye. To generate the receptive fields for the 102 neurons, we tiled the 8x8 receptive fields 7 times around the center, and we added an expanded receptive field (9 times the size of the original) that covered the input space with low resolution. Note that this network is very large, and requires over 1GRAM to be allocated to Nengo! Results of this experiment can be seen in sparse_image_rep images.

[[Image(sparse_rep_image.bmp, 400)]]
[[Image(sparse_rep_image2.bmp, 400)]]
[[Image(sparse_rep_image3.bmp, 400)]]
[[Image(sparse_rep_image4.bmp, 400)]]

=== Large network taking realtime inputs from the silicon retina ===
In the next experiment, we used events from the silicon retina as inputs. In order to make this transfer, we had to run jAER. In jAER, we applied a 48x48 pixel spatial filter on the events received from the retina, and broadcast these as unimodal UDP signals. We then opened NENGO and ran the script, which subsampled the input into a 24x24 array and input it into the same network as before. Since events are streaming in real time, the simulator also has to be able to compute in real time. For this reason, we recommend a fast computer with a lot of memory. Results can be seen in the attached sparse_rep images, where a line was moved back and forth accross the retina's field of view.

[[Image(sparse_rep2.bmp, 400)]]

=== Large network calculating orientation based saliency ===
In is similar to LCAbig, but adds a visual saliency layer. Neural columns are sorted into channels based on their orientation, and all the neurons in a channel have mutual lateral inhibition. This serves to depress orientations that are common, while orientations that are unique in the input have no competition in their channel, so their magnitude is preserved, and they appear salient. The results of this experiment can be seen in salient.jpg. While the unique orientation is relatively salient, many non-orientation based info is being passed into the saliency map, and cluttering the image. Future versions of the code should try to fix this.

=== Large netwrok taking realtime inputs from the silicon retina and calculating saliency ===
LCAsal_UDP is an attempt to combine the last two experiments. Unfortunately, the addition of the extra layer slowed down the network so much that signals had trouble propagating to the salience layer. This experiment should be repeated on a more powerful computer.